อาการ สาเหตุ การตรวจวินิจฉัย และการรักษากระเพาะปัสสาวะอักเสบ (Cystitis, Bladder Inflammation) - Cystitis (Bladder Inflammation) Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Cystitis (Bladder Inflammation)

Cystitis is a bladder inflammation caused by bacterial infection; if not properly treated, it can lead to severe health problems, such as kidney infections.

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Cystitis (Bladder Inflammation)

Cystitis is a bladder inflammation caused by bacterial infection; if not properly treated, it can lead to severe health problems, such as kidney infections.

Your doctor will check which type of cystitis you have to determine the correct treatment modality.

Causes

  • Bacterial cystitis
    It develops because bacterial invaders, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), enter the urethra and multiply in the bladder.
  • Noninfectious cystitis
    • Interstitial cystitis can be hard to diagnose and treat as the cause is uncertain. Most often, it affects women. 
    • Drug-induced cystitis, such as chemotherapeutic agents, can cause bladder inflammation.
    • Radiation cystitis from pelvic radiotherapy can affect the bladder tissues.  
    • Foreign-body cystitis due to prolonged use of a catheter. 
    • Chemical cystitis is bladder inflammation due to irritants in feminine products or spermicides.

Risk factors

  • Gender. Women are more likely to develop urinary tract or bladder infections than men due to their shorter urethra, meaning a shorter distance for bacteria to enter the bladder.
  • Factors decreasing urine flow
    • Urinary tract obstruction from various causes, such as benign prostatic enlargement, prostate cancer, urethral stricture, or urethral obstruction due to a foreign object or kidney stone
    • Neurogenic bladder
    • Inadequate water intake
  • Factors increasing infections
    • Sexual intercourse
    • Spermicide
    • Hormonal imbalance
    • Improper use of antibiotics causes an imbalance of normal flora.
  • Factors increasing the risk of pathogen invasion
    • Catheterization 
    • Urinary incontinence
    • Bowel incontinence
    • Urinary retention accompanied by bladder.

Symptoms

  • Painful urination
  • Frequent urination, urinary urgency
  • Hematuria
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Pelvic pain
  • Low-grade fever

When to see a doctor

Seek immediate medical attention if you develop the above signs and symptoms, especially with accompanying symptoms such as back or flank pain, fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting, which are signs of kidney infection that you should not ignore.

Complications

If left untreated, cystitis can lead to complications such as:

  • Kidney infection, particularly in young children and older adults, as their symptoms may be overlooked or mistaken for other medical conditions. 
  • Hematuria 

    Diagnosis

    • Urinalysis and bacterial urine culture 
    • Cystoscopy to view your urinary tract in patients with indications.
    • Imaging tests such as X-ray, ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to determine if there is a tumor or structural abnormality.

    Treatment

    The treatment modality depends on the underlying cause of cystitis.

    Bacterial cystitis

    • Your doctor will prescribe antibiotics of the type and duration of medication suitable for your condition. It is crucial to complete the course of antibiotics to prevent recurrence. 

    Interstitial cystitis

    • Treatment modalities depend on symptoms and causes, such as 
    • Oral medications 
    • Cystoscopy
    • Bladder instillation therapy
    • Surgery

    Prevention

    • Take continuous low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis or post-coital prophylaxis under the doctor’s supervision.  
    • Avoid vaginal douching, particularly with products containing antibiotics.
    • If the disease frequently recurs, find out and treat the causes and avoid risk factors. For example, if there is a kidney stone blockage, remove it from the urinary tract.
    • Drink plenty of water.
    • According to studies, consuming cranberries containing proanthocyanidins can lower the risk of urinary tract infection. However, this may not be effective for everyone. 
    • Other factors such as how often you urinate, wiping from front to back or vice versa, soaking in a bathtub, or type of underwear are not proven to relate to bladder infections. However, good personal hygiene practice is still essential. 

    Home remedies

    • Keep yourself hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. 
    • Take antibiotics as prescribed.
    • If you develop fever and chills, seek medical

    Cystitis (bladder Inflammation)   Infographic En

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    Published: 22 Nov 2020

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