อาการ สาเหตุ และการรักษาปัสสาวะเป็นเลือด - Blood in the urine (Hematuria) - Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Blood in the urine (Hematuria)

Blood in the urine (Hematuria) can result from infections, intense exercise, and urinary tract diseases. You should see a doctor for a proper diagnosis if your urine is bloody. Though, in most instances

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Blood in the urine (Hematuria)

Blood in the urine can result from infections, intense exercise, and urinary tract diseases. You should see a doctor for a proper diagnosis if your urine is bloody. Though, in most instances, hematuria is not life-threatening, it can be a warning sign of a more serious medical condition.

Types of hematuria

  • Gross hematuria: you can see pink, red, or dark tea-colored urine.
  • Microscopic hematuria: under a microscope, one can see numerous red blood cells despite normal-looking urine.

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Symptoms

You could have blood in your urine without any symptoms. Others may have accompanying symptoms, including:

  • Painful urination
  • Frequent urination
  • Urinary urgency
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fevers and chills
  • Lower abdominal or back pain

When to see a doctor

See your doctor for a prompt diagnosis as soon as you have red color urine because it can be a sign of a severe health problem.

Causes

Eating certain foods such as beets or rhubarb, taking phenazopyridine, or having menstruation can cause red urine as well as other conditions such as:

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Cystitis
  • Urinary stones such as kidney, bladder, and ureteral stones.
  • Enlarged prostate 
  • Urinary tract injury
  • Endometriosis
  • Kidney disease
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Marathon running or contact sports can lead to kidney and bladder injuries
  • Cancers of the bladder, kidney, ureter, urethra, and prostate

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Risk factors

  • Age: Anyone, including children or adolescents, can have red blood cells in the urine, but the risk is higher in middle-aged and older men due to the increased risk of an enlarged prostate gland. There is also a higher risk of urinary tract cancer in both females and males.
  • Urinary tract infection is the most common cause of hematuria in children.
  • Family history of kidney disease.
  • Certain medications, such as antibiotics, pain relievers, or blood thinners
  • Contact sports or running a marathon.

Diagnosis

  • Urinalysis  
  • Urine cytology
  • Blood tests can detect infections or signs of renal or other diseases causing blood in the urine.
  • Imaging tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan can help assess the urinary structure and detect kidney stones or other abnormalities.
  • Cystoscopy, which can be a day procedure, for examining the bladder lining for abnormalities  
  • Renal biopsy for tissue diagnoses of kidney diseases

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Treatment

The doctor will prescribe antibiotics for urinary tract infections, other medications for enlarged prostate, and shock wave lithotripsy for kidney stones.

Prevention

Changing your lifestyle can prevent or lower the risk of hematuria.

  • Drink plenty of water because extreme dehydration can lead to bloody urine.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Do not overuse pain relievers.
  • Avoid having vigorous sex.
  • Avoid occupational risks such as exposure to chemicals, metals, dyes, rubbers, or radiation.
  • Avoid long-distance running, and intense exercise, which can lead to dehydration or contact sports.

Article by

Published: 14 Aug 2023

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