ภาวะสายตาสั้นและภาวะสายตายาวแตกต่างกันอย่างไร (What’s The Difference Between Myopia and Hyperopia?)

What’s The Difference Between Myopia and Hyperopia?

When the eyes cannot focus light on the retina, it affects the ability to see clearly. You may have a problem seeing near or far, medically called myopia and hyperopia.

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What’s The Difference Between Myopia and Hyperopia?

When the eyes cannot focus light on the retina, it affects the ability to see clearly. You may have a problem seeing near or far, medically called myopia and hyperopia. These two types of refractive errors are typically hereditary and caused by the inappropriate shapes of an eyeball and lens. Many symptoms of myopia and hyperopia are similar and are treatable with prescription eyeglasses, contact lenses, and refractive surgeries.

Myopia and Hyperopia

Both conditions are caused by the inappropriate shapes of an eyeball or lens, leading to refractive errors.

What Is Myopia?

Myopia or nearsightedness is a result of the elongated eyeball. The refraction of light from a distant object falls in front of the retina resulting in a blurry image. People with myopia can see nearby things or read up close but have difficulty seeing at a distance, driving, or playing sports. Children with a myopic parent are likely to develop nearsightedness. Myopia in children can worsen over time if they do not spend enough time outdoors or often use their eyes for close-up vision or stare at screens. The condition can progress until they reach 20 when it stabilizes. However, myopia can continuously deteriorate if eye health is not cared for properly.

What Is Hyperopia?

Hyperopia or farsightedness is due to a flattened eyeball and weak ciliary muscles. An image of a distant object focuses at the back of the retina, so it is out of focus. People with hyperopia have trouble reading or doing close-up work and develop eye strain, headaches, or lazy eyes. Farsightedness is prevalent in adults who are over 40 years old.

Symptoms Of Myopia and Hyperopia

Many symptoms of myopia and hyperopia are similar.

Myopia can cause:

  • Blurred vision when looking afar at a distance 
  • Squinting
  • Eyestrain
  • Headaches
  • Difficulty driving

Hyperopia’s symptoms include: 

  • Blurred vision when looking at objects nearby 
  • Squinting
  • Eyestrain
  • Headaches
  • Difficulty reading
  • Accommodative Dysfunction
  • When to see an ophthalmologist
  • If you have a vision problem or the symptoms above, you should see an ophthalmologist for an eye exam for proper treatment.

Treatment Of Myopia and Hyperopia

Non-surgical treatments are:

  • Prescription eyeglasses
  • Contact lenses

Wearing prescription eyeglasses or contact lenses can help correct a refractive error. The ray of light will be accurately directed onto the retina so you can see a clear image. Myopia is correctable with a lens with negative refractive power. It decreases the lens refractive power to lengthen the focal point. For hyperopia, a positive refractive power lens will bend the light to fall on the retina.

Eyeglasses can put pressure on the nose of the wearer. Some people may not like the way they look with glasses. Therefore, they may opt for lightweight contact lenses and a more natural look.

However, contact lenses can cause infections or other ocular problems, such as cornea scarring or dry eye.

Surgical treatments include:

  • Laser eye surgery uses a laser beam to reshape the cornea, improving the focusing ability. The surgical result is permanent, and wearing prescription glasses or contact lenses is no longer necessary. However, the natural lens can still age and develop age-related conditions, such as presbyopia. The most common type of refractive surgeries is photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser in situ keratectomies (LASIK), and ReLEX (Refractive Lenticule Extraction). However, LASIK is more popular due to the shorter recovery period and less postoperative pain. 
  • Implantable Collamer Lens is for people with a high refractive prescription or eye conditions such as dry eye or compromised cornea and ocular surface.

What’s The Difference Between Myopia and Hyperopia? Infographic - En

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Published: 20 Mar 2023

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