ตัวเลือกวิธีคุมกำเนิดที่เหมาะสม - type of birth control is right for you

Which type of birth control is right for you?

Selecting a suitable method of contraception can be a nagging issue because there are so many options, ranging from condoms, birth control pills, and IUDs to vasectomy.

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Which type of birth control is right for you?

Selecting a suitable method of contraception can be a nagging issue because there are so many options, ranging from condoms, birth control pills, and IUDs to vasectomy. The right contraceptive depends on several factors, including personal preference, lifestyle, pregnancy plan, effectiveness, expenses, potential side effects, etc.

Effectiveness of contraceptive methods

No contraceptive method offers absolute certainty in preventing pregnancy, except for abstaining from sexual activity. Among the available contraceptives, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and contraceptive implants exhibit higher effectiveness compared to condoms or cervical caps. Birth control pills, while effective, possess a 93% success rate in preventing pregnancy. In cases of missing a birth control pill or a condom break, emergency contraception can be taken within five days after sexual intercourse to reduce the likelihood of pregnancy.

Type of contraceptive methods

ห่วงคุมกำเนิด - Intrauterine devices (IUDs)

Intrauterine devices (IUDs)

  • A hormone-free copper IUD remains effective for at least a decade and is removable when desired. Certain users may encounter heightened or extended menstrual bleeding.
  • A levonorgestrel IUD emits a hormone that thickens cervical mucus and thins the endometrium, which may reduce menstrual bleeding and pain, or even cause cessation of menstruation. Its effectiveness persists for 3-6 years.

ยาคุมกำเนิดแบบฝัง - Contraceptive implants

Contraceptive implants

A contraceptive implant is placed in the arm and becomes effective within 24 hours as it gradually releases hormones into the body. It offers pregnancy prevention for at least three years, though irregular bleeding is a possible side effect. Fertility typically resumes promptly after removal.

ยาคุมกำเนิดแบบฉีด - Contraceptive injections

Contraceptive injections

Medroxyprogesterone acetate, a progestin hormone, is administered via injection into the skin or a muscle in the upper arm or buttock every three months. Users may encounter vaginal bleeding during the first 3-6 months of usage. Approximately 50% of users no longer experience menstruation after one year. Menstruation or ovulation may return within about six months after discontinuing the contraceptive injection, and a regular menstrual cycle can fully reestablish itself after approximately one and a half years.

ยาเม็ดคุมกำเนิด - Birth control pills

Birth control pills

Birth control pills are available in two types: combination pills containing both estrogen and progestin and progestin-only pills. Their effectiveness stands at approximately 93% when taken daily. If you miss a pill, take it as soon as you recall and use a condom for the next 7 days. Common side effects include nausea, breast tenderness, mood swings, and irregular vaginal spotting, typically resolving within 2-3 months.

แผ่นแปะคุมกำเนิด - Skin patches

Skin patches

Birth control skin patches, akin to birth control pills, contain a combination of estrogen and progestin. They are recommended for individuals within a normal BMI range, as their effectiveness may diminish for those with an overweight BMI. The patch can be applied to the upper arm, shoulder, upper back, or hip and replaced weekly for three consecutive weeks. It is deliberately omitted during the fourth week to facilitate menstruation. Individuals with obesity or a heightened risk of blood clots should steer clear of birth control skin patches.

วงแหวนคุมกำเนิด - Vaginal rings

Vaginal rings

The vaginal ring slowly releases estrogen and progestin hormones when positioned inside the vagina for three consecutive weeks, followed by a ring-free fourth week during which menstruation occurs. It's permissible to remove the ring for up to 2-3 hours during sexual intercourse without compromising its effectiveness. The frequency of ring replacement varies depending on the brand, occurring every four weeks or annually.

Barrier contraceptives

  • External (male) condoms are typically made from latex and serve as a barrier method to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
  • Internal (female) condoms are fashioned from polyurethane. They feature a closed end for insertion into the vagina, with the open end positioned at the vaginal opening.
  • Cervical cap
  • Spermicide comes in various forms, including cream, gel, film, foam, sponge, suppository, and tablet.

Permanent birth control methods

  • Tubal ligation ligations involve cutting or tying the fallopian tubes. This procedure can be conducted during a cesarean birth or as a day surgery.
  • Vasectomy entails cutting or blocking the vas deferens and does not impact sexual performance. After a vasectomy, it is necessary to continue using condoms for approximately 3 months and undergo testing to confirm the absence of sperm in your semen.

Emergency contraception

It is intended exclusively for emergencies, such as when a condom breaks, you miss taking your birth control pill, engage in unprotected sex, or experience sexual assault. It is available in pill or IUD forms, which can also serve as a regular, ongoing method of birth control.

Other birth control methods

Natural family planning relies on fertility awareness and the standard day’s method. It's important to note that the effectiveness of this approach is generally lower when compared to other contraceptive methods.

การเลือกวิธีคุมกำเนิด - Factors to consider when choosing a birth control method

Factors to consider when choosing a birth control method

  • Age and health history: Your age and health condition can impact which methods are suitable for you.
  • Relationship Status: Consider whether you have one or multiple sexual partners, as this can influence your choice of birth control method.
  • Pregnancy Plans: Think about your plans for having a baby and how soon you may want to conceive.
  • Effectiveness, side effects, convenience, and price of different birth control methods.

Answering the questions below can help in choosing the proper birth control method.

  • How much is this birth control method? Is it available at a pharmacy, or require a doctor's prescription?
  • What are its instructions? Do I have to follow a strict regimen?
  • What are its side effects?
  • Can I get pregnant as soon as I stop using it?
  • Can it protect me from STDs?
    Remember to carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each option and select the one that aligns best with your lifestyle, health, and relationship status.

Article by

  • Dr Sarwinee Ratchanon
    Dr Sarwinee Ratchanon A obstetrician-gynecologist specializing in reproductive endocrinology

Published: 24 Sep 2023

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